Musicians, singers, and related workers
1. Musicians, singers, and related workers arrange music, or conduct original music such as radio and television jingles, film scores, and popular songs. Composers and songwriters using harmony, rhythm, melody, tonal structure to create original unique music.
2. Talented individuals who are skilled playing multiple instruments and music styles can obtain the best job prospects. Employment is expected rise 8% in the 2008-2018 decade. The desire to perform will continue however, standing alone talent isn’t always a guarantee for success.
3. Salaried music directors and composers were $41,270 in May 2008. Middle 50% earned between $26,480 and $63,200. The lowest 10% earned less than $16,750, and the highest 10% earned more than $107,280. Typically perform day or night and on the weekends. Preforming local, national and, global.
4. Musicians need extensive and prolonged training and practice to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to interpret music at a professional level. Like other artists, musicians and singers continually strive to improve their abilities. Formal training may be obtained through private study with an accomplished musician, in a college or university music program, or in a music conservatory. An audition generally is necessary to qualify for university or conservatory study. The National Association of Schools of Music is made up of 615 accredited college-level programs in music. Courses typically include music theory, music interpretation, composition, conducting, and performance, either with a particular instrument or a voice performance. Music directors, composers, conductors, and arrangers need considerable related work experience or advanced training in these subjects. A master's or doctoral degree usually is required to teach advanced music courses in colleges and universities; a bachelor's degree may be sufficient to teach basic courses. A degree in music education qualifies graduates for a State certificate to teach music in public elementary or secondary schools. Musicians who do not meet public school music education requirements may teach in private schools and recreation associations or instruct individual students in private sessions.Other qualifications. Musicians must be knowledgeable about a broad range of musical styles. Having a broader range of interest, knowledge, and training can help expand employment opportunities and musical abilities. Voice training and private instrumental lessons, especially when taken at a young age, also help develop technique and enhance one's performance.
Television, Video, and Motion Picture Camera Operators and Editor
1. Television, video, and motion picture camera operators produce images that tell a story, inform or entertain an audience, or record an event. Film and video editors edit soundtracks, film, and video for the motion picture, cable, and broadcast television industries. Some camera operators do their own editing.Camera operators use television, video, or motion picture cameras to shoot a wide range of material, including television series, studio programs, news and sporting events, music videos, motion pictures, documentaries, and training sessions. This material is constructed from many different shots by film and video editors. With the increase in digital technology, the editing work is now done on a computer. Many camera operators and editors are employed by independent television stations; local affiliate stations of television networks; large cable and television networks; or smaller, independent production companies. Making commercial-quality movies and video programs requires technical expertise and creativity. Producing successful images requires choosing and presenting interesting material, selecting appropriate equipment, and applying a steady hand to ensure smooth, natural movement of the camera. Videographers film or videotape private ceremonies and special events, such as weddings. Some record and post short videos on Web sites for businesses. Studio camera operators work in a broadcast studio and usually videotape their subjects from a fixed position. News camera operators, also called electronic news-gathering (ENG) operators, work as part of a reporting team, following newsworthy events as they unfold. To capture live events, they must anticipate the action and act quickly. ENG operators sometimes edit raw footage on the spot for relay to a television affiliate for broadcast.
2. Employment of camera operators and editors is expected to grow 11 percent over the 2008–18 decade, which is as fast as the average for all occupations through 2018. As the motion picture industry expands, demand for camera operators and editors will expand also. Camera operators will be needed to film made-for-Internet broadcasts, such as music videos, digital movies, sports features, and general entertainment programming. As the market for professional Internet video grows, camera operators may see increases in employment. Growth will be tempered, however, by the increased offshore production of motion pictures. Job growth for studio camera operators in television broadcasting will be slowed by the use of automated cameras under the control of a single person working either on the studio floor or in a director's booth. For ENG camera operators and editors, growth may be tempered by the combination of roles and other cost-cutting measures at broadcast stations. For videographers, computer and Internet services will provide new outlets for interactive productions.
3. Median annual wages for television, video, and motion picture camera operators were $41,670 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $29,020 and $59,970. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,710, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $79,440. Median annual wages were $40,910 in the motion picture and video industries and $36,250 in radio and television broadcasting. Median annual wages for film and video editors were $50,560 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $33,060 and $77,700. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $24,640, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $112,410. Median annual wages were $56,170 in the motion picture and video industries, which employed the largest numbers of film and video editors. Freelance camera operators’ earnings tend to fluctuate each year. Work environment. ENG operators and those who cover major events, such as conventions or sporting events, frequently travel locally and stay overnight or travel to distant places for longer periods. Camera operators filming television programs or motion pictures may travel to film on location. Some camera operators—especially ENG operators covering accidents, natural disasters, civil unrest, or military conflicts—work in uncomfortable or even dangerous surroundings; however the occupation as a whole does not tend to suffer more work related injuries than other occupations. Many camera operators must wait long hours in all kinds of weather for an event to take place and must stand or walk for long periods while carrying heavy equipment. ENG operators often work under strict deadlines. Hours of work and working schedules for camera operators and editors vary considerably. Those employed by television and cable networks or advertising agencies may work long hours to meet production schedules. ENG operators often work long, irregular hours and must be available to work on short notice. Camera operators and editors working in motion picture production also may work long, irregular hours.
4. Education and training. Many universities, community and junior colleges, and private trade and technical schools offer courses in camera operation and videography. Basic courses cover equipment, processes, and techniques. It is very important for camera operators to have a good understanding of computer technology and knowledge of digital cameras. Bachelor's degree programs, especially those including business courses, provide a well-rounded education. Film schools also may provide training on the artistic aspects of filmmaking. Individuals interested in camera operations should subscribe to videographic newsletters and magazines, join audio-video clubs, and seek summer or part-time employment in cable and television networks, motion picture studios, or camera and video stores. To enter the occupation, many camera operators first become production assistants, to learn how film and video production works. In entry-level jobs they learn to set up lights, cameras, and other equipment. They also may receive routine assignments requiring adjustments to their cameras or decisions on what subject matter to capture. Camera operators in the film and television industries usually are hired for a project on the basis of recommendations from individuals such as producers, directors of photography, and camera assistants from previous projects or through interviews with the producer. A good professional reputation is important in finding employment. ENG and studio camera operators who work for television affiliates usually start in small markets to gain experience. Other qualifications. Camera operators need good eyesight, artistic ability, and hand-eye coordination. They should be patient, accurate, and detail oriented. Camera operators also should have good communication skills.
1. Photographers produce and preserve images that paint a picture, tell a story, or record an event. To create commercial-quality photographs, photographers need technical expertise, creativity, and the appropriate professional equipment. Producing a successful picture requires choosing and presenting a subject to achieve a particular effect, and selecting the right cameras and other photographic enhancing tools. For example, photographers may enhance the subject's appearance with natural or artificial light, shoot the subject from an interesting angle, draw attention to a particular aspect of the subject by blurring the background, or use various lenses to produce desired levels of detail at various distances from the subject. Today, most photographers use digital cameras instead of traditional silver-halide film cameras, although some photographers use both types, depending on their own preference and the nature of the assignment. Regardless of the camera they use, photographers also employ an array of other equipment—from lenses, filters, and tripods to flash attachments and specially constructed lighting equipment—to improve the quality of their work.
2. Employment of photographers is expected to grow 12 percent over the 2008-18 period, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Demand for portrait photographers should increase as the population grows. Moreover, growth of Internet versions of magazines, journals, and newspapers will require increasing numbers of commercial photographers to provide digital images. The Internet and improved data management programs also should make it easier for freelancers to market directly to their customers, increasing opportunities for self-employment and decreasing reliance on stock photo agencies. Job growth, however, will be constrained somewhat by the widespread use of digital photography and the falling price of digital equipment. Improvements in digital technology reduce barriers of entry into this profession and allow more individual consumers and businesses to produce, store, and access photographic images on their own. News and commercial photographers may be the most adversely affected by this increase in amateur photographers and non-copyrighted photos. Declines in the newspaper industry also will reduce demand for news photographers to provide still images for print.
3. Median annual wages of salaried photographers were $29,440 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $20,620 and $43,530. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $16,920, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $62,430. Median annual wages in the photographic services industry, which employed the largest numbers of salaried photographers, were $26,160. Salaried photographers—most of whom work full time—tend to earn more than those who are self-employed. Because most freelance and portrait photographers purchase their own equipment, they incur considerable expense acquiring and maintaining cameras and accessories. Unlike news and commercial photographers, few fine arts photographers are successful enough to support themselves solely through their art. Working conditions for photographers vary considerably. Some photographers may work a 5-day, 40-hour week. News photographers, however, often work long, irregular hours and must be available to work on short notice. Many photographers work part time or on variable schedules. Portrait photographers usually work in their own studios but also may travel to take photographs at the client's location, such as a school, a company office, or a private home. News and commercial photographers frequently travel locally, stay overnight on assignments, or travel to distant places for long periods. Some photographers work in uncomfortable or even dangerous surroundings, especially news photographers covering accidents, natural disasters, civil unrest, or military conflicts. Many photographers must wait long hours in all kinds of weather for an event to take place and stand or walk for long periods while carrying heavy equipment. News photographers often work under strict deadlines
4. Education and training. Entry-level positions in photojournalism or in industrial or scientific photography generally require a college degree in photography or in a field related to the industry in which the photographer seeks employment. Entry-level freelance or portrait photographers need technical proficiency. Some complete a college degree or vocational training programs. Photography courses are offered by many universities, community and junior colleges, vocational-technical institutes, and private trade and technical schools. Basic courses in photography cover equipment, processes, and techniques. Learning good business and marketing skills is important and some bachelor's degree programs offer courses focusing on them. Art schools offer useful training in photographic design and composition. Photographers may start out as assistants to experienced photographers. Assistants acquire the technical knowledge needed to be a successful photographer and also learn other skills necessary to run a portrait or commercial photography business Other qualifications. Photographers need good eyesight, artistic ability, and good hand-eye coordination. They should be patient, accurate, and detail-oriented and should be able to work well with others, as they frequently deal with clients, graphic designers, and advertising and publishing specialists. Photographers need to know how to use computer software programs and applications that allow them to prepare and edit images, and those who market directly to clients should know how to use the Internet to display their work.Portrait photographers need the ability to help people relax in front of the camera. Commercial and fine arts photographers must be imaginative and original. News photographers must not only be good with a camera, but also understand the story behind an event so that their pictures match the story. They must be decisive in recognizing a potentially good photograph and act quickly to capture it. Many photographers have websites which highlight an online portfolio that they use to attract work from magazines or advertising agencies. For freelance photographers, maintaining their website is essential. Photographers who operate their own business, or freelance, need business skills as well as talent. These individuals must know how to prepare a business plan; submit bids; write contracts; keep financial records; market their work; hire models, if needed; get permission to shoot on locations that normally are not open to the public; obtain releases to use photographs of people; license and price photographs; and secure copyright protection for their work. To protect their rights and their work, self-employed photographers require basic knowledge of licensing and copyright laws, as well as knowledge of contracts and negotiation procedures.
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